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Ten Lessons Learned with Nicks Handmade Boots

Previous Ten Lessons Learned posts are:
 
 
TLL Instagram is: here
 
And blog containing all posts (with pictures!) can be found: here
 
 
What is your name, position, and where is Nicks Boots located?
 
  • Grant Pemberton, General Manager, Nicks Handmade Boots located in Spokane Washington.
 
What types of boots does Nicks produce, and how have your current offerings evolved from Nicks’ beginnings in 1964?
 
  • The "original Nick" worked for White's Boot and wanted to build a better boot, so he started Nicks in his basement in 1964. At that time, he was focused on logger-style boots and general-purpose farming boots for the Spokane community. The wildland fire community got wind of Nicks and demand starting going up in the early 1990s. More boot-makers were hired, and the operation went from a handful of cordwainers to more than a dozen. Nicks was on the map! Soon people were coming to Nicks from all over with all kinds of "custom" requests. We introduced Packer boots, station boots, safety toe boots, etc. It wasn't until around 2014 when we started introducing some lighter duty, dress-causal boots for customers that wanted something "they could wear to church or dinner".
 
In an interview Sergy Sherbinin (Nicks’ Production Manager) gave to Spokesman-Review, he mentioned the leather at Nicks’ was much thicker than what he was used to when he crafted shoes in Ukraine. What qualities (type of tannage, thickness, animal, etc) help determine if they’ll be used for a Nicks’ Boot?
 
  • For serious work boots, 7-8oz oil-tanned steer hides with a propriety hardness has been key to our success. Some companies have maintained the thickness but have reduced the hardness or stiffness to make the boot making process and the break-in easier. Customers identify these changes very quickly as humans have about 7000 nerve endings in our feet: "Feels like the leather is softer than what is used to be?" Other companies have tried to use thicker leather, which can result in a boot which can't be broken in.
  • The key is finding a receipt which is thick and tough, but will soften after 80-120 hours and hold up to the adverse working conditions that our customers experience day in and day out. Concerning lighter duty and dress casual boots, durability is less of a concern. But since we are known as a serious work boot company, our dress boots are still 5.5-6.5oz and require significant break-in as well.
 
Nicks Boots started out under a different name, Nick’s Custom Boots. The change makes sense, because you now offer stock boots that can be fitted on standard lasts…but you still offer custom options. It’d be really interesting if you could give, say, three memorable examples of custom boots that Nicks made, just to give an idea of how far you’re willing to go in order to have a satisfied customer.
 
  • We have cut toes off shoe lasts to customize for amputees. We have done "double uppers" for customers that more or less want their boot to function like a brace or a cast. We have a soft spot for veterans and amputees who just can't find good footwear. We recently did a custom pair for a boy with Down syndrome. He was about a size 3 1/2 on the right and a size 4 on his left. We are in the process of building a boot for an Afghan War vet who lost his leg. The “good” leg will have a standard boot, while the “bad” leg will have a highly customized light weight boot to fit his prosthetic.
 
And as a follow up -- making something custom for a client is a special responsibility. If done right you’ll create something they’ll treasure for decades to come. Are there any replies that stuck with you from customers who ordered a custom pair of boots?
 
  • Nothing specific comes to mind, but a common comment that we hear in our store or via email on a weekly basis is something along the lines of, "Thanks to Nicks, I can work again". So many people battle with cheap, off-shored footwear that doesn't fit and doesn't last. The foam and cardboard construction, combined with cheap leather, fails a few months after wearing them and they begin to suffer for the next 8-12 months before they complete disintegrate and have to throw them away and purchase a new a pair. Boots are a tool, and we love hearing when people are actually able to work again because of the pain relief they experience with our higher arch boots.
 
If you had to guess, how many square-feet of leather goes into a pair of boots, say a men’s Size 10 “The Traveler”? And what about something more rugged, like a mens’ Size 10 “The Hot Shot®”?
 
  • Roughly about 4 1/2 to 6 ½ square feet.
 
In 2016, Nicks moved into the Display House, a building formerly used as a costume and party supply retailer. This new building is more than 3x your former location – 20,000-square-feet vs 6000-square-feet. What are some operational procedures this new space offers the company? Was there any celebration on the last day at your old location (which Nicks occupied since 1991)?
 
  • Moving to our new location was necessary mainly for our employees. The old building was in dire need of an overall. There was no natural light and poor air filtration. Our new shop has window spanning the entirety of the production floor. Anyone can look through the windows and see the whole operation, and more importantly, the employees benefit from the natural light and air filtration systems we have installed. Also, we are becoming a destintation location, so having a bigger retail space was important as well. It allows us to get more people "walking in boots", and enables us to showcase all the available boot options. There was cause for celebration when we moved as our employees really deserved a better working environment. These are some of the hardest working people I have ever met.
 
This might seem like a big question, but it’s not something everyone’s aware of: could you walk through the welting process at Nicks, why it’s important, and what it can offer a Nicks’ Custom Boots customer that a typical, non-welted department store boot can’t?
 
  • The key to building a great boot is tying the upper portion (the leather that covers your leg and foot) of a boot to shoe to the lower portion (the insole, midsole, and outsole). Roughly 99% off all boots and shoes out there utilize a glued on sole. The sole is simply glued to the bottom of a foam or cardboard insole. There is no welt. When the glue fails, well, your toes are exposed. At Nicks, we use a combination of Blake stitch (to tie vamp liner to the insole) and “stitch down” (to tie the vamp welt to the outsole) construction.
  • This process locks all the layers together and prevents the upper portion from separating from the outsole. For those who are boot connoisseur and appreciate traditional boot making, we can “hand-welt” the boot which involves attaching a welt-strip to the vamp and insole by pushing an awl and thread through all the layers of the vamp and into the insole. We don’t do this on our serious work books as the holes created by the awl can cause dirty and water to enter the insole when the boots are expose to harsh conditions.
 
Are there any misconceptions about boots or their construction that you’d like to set straight?
 
  • There is a place for automation in boot-making. Machines can do some steps better than manual hand-tools. A Rapid-E outsole stitcher is going to make a boot hold together much better than sewing a sole on by hand. A Mckay stitch may be more durable than a hand-sewn welt. On the other hand, shoes and boots that are made mostly by machines may not be as durable as a hand-lasted and hand-bottomed boots.
  • There is a place for automation just as there is a place for traditional hand-work. They are not mutually exclusive. All our boots are lasted by hand and hand-bottomed. Every pair is pulled by hand around the last with lasting pliers, and every pair has nearly 100 nails which are driven in by a hammer. We believe we have found a perfect mix of tradition and automation in our process.
 
Where can people find more about Nicks’ Custom Boots (links to online store, blog, Instagram, etc)?
 
  • Our website is a great resource (www.nicksboots.com) as well as our Instagram feed (@nickshandmadeboots).
submitted by yabbayaypw to Leathercraft

How we switched the configuration of our services from XML to YAML

Disclaimer

The article originally was written by me in Russian - https://habr.com/ru/company/utex/blog/438362/ - and this translation is first of my attempts to translate my articles into English. Please don't judge strictly.

Background of the concern

Our company develops services (about 12 total) that work as backend of our systems. Each of services is a Windows-service that executes its own specific tasks.
We want to move all those services to *nix-OS. For that purpose we have to discontinue using a Windows-services wrapper and switch from .NET Framework to .NET Standard.
The last requirement leads to a necessity to get rid of some legacy code that is not supported in .NET Standard, including the maintenance of configuration of our servers through XML implemented by classes from the System.Configuration. At the same time going this way we can solve another our concern is that we make mistakes in our XML-configs time to time while modification of the settings (e.g. sometimes we put a closing tag at wrong place or forget it at all) but the excellent reader of XML-configs System.Xml.XmlDocument silently swallows such configs producing a completely unexpected result.
We decided to switch to the configuration based on trendy YAML. What issues we encountered and how we solved them — read in this article.

What do we have

How do we read a configuration from XML

We read an XML using the most common method used in other projects.
There is a file with .NET-project settings in each service that named AppSettings.cs, it contains all the necessary for the service settings. Something like this:
[System.Configuration.SettingsProvider(typeof(PortableSettingsProvider))] internal sealed partial class AppSettings : IServerManagerConfigStorage, IWebSettingsStorage, IServerSettingsStorage, IGraphiteAddressStorage, IDatabaseConfigStorage { } 
Such a technique of settings separating onto interfaces allows further to use them in a convenient way through a DI-container.
All main magic of settings storing is actually hidden in the PortableSettingsProvider (see the attribute of the class) and also in the AppSettings.Designer.cs designer:
... internal sealed partial class AppSettings : global::System.Configuration.ApplicationSettingsBase { private static AppSettings defaultInstance = ... ... public int ListenPort { get { return ((int)(this["ListenPort"])); } set { this["ListenPort"] = value; } } ... 
As you might see behind the scene there are hidden all those properties that we add into a server configuration when modify it using the Visual Studio settings designer.
Our PortableSettingsProvider class, mentioned before, actually reads an XML-file, and uses a received result through the SettingsProvider to save the settings into the AppSettings properties.
There is an example of an XML-config that we read (most settings are hidden because of security reasons):
    
Inactive, ChartLen: 1000, PrintLen: 50, UseProxy: False 00:00:10 ...

What YAML-files do we want to read

Something like these:
VirtualFeed: MaxChartHistoryLength: 10 Port: 35016 UseThrottling: True ThrottlingIntervalMs: 50000 UseHistoryBroadcast: True CalendarName: "EmptyCalendar" UsMarketFeed: UseImbalances: True 

Issues of the switching

First, configs in our XML are “flat”, but in YAML are not (sections and subsections are supported). It’s seen well in the examples above. When we used XML we solved the flat settings issue using our own parsers that can transform strings of a specific pattern into our more complex classes. An example of a such complex string:
 Inactive, ChartLen: 1000, PrintLen: 50, UseProxy: False  
We don’t want to do such transformations working with YAML at all. But at the same time we are limited with an existing “flat” structure of the AppSettings class: all properties of settings are mixed there in one heap.
Second, the configs of our servers are not static monolith, time to time we modify them right at the same time when the server works, it means that we have to catch those changes “on the fly” at runtime. For that purpose in the XML-implementation we derived our AppSettings from INotifyPropertyChanged (actually each interface implemented by the AppSettings is derived from it) and subscribed on the event of properties change. Such approach worked because the base System.Configuration.ApplicationSettingsBase class implements INotifyPropertyChanged “out of the box”. We should keep such behavior after the switching to YAML too.
Third, actually we haven’t only one config for each server but we have two configs: the first one with default settings, and the second one with overridden ones. It’s necessary to avoid the total copying of a whole settings set in each of some instances of the same type servers that listen to different ports and have slightly distinguishing settings.
And one more issue — access to the settings is executed not only through interfaces, but through a direct call of the AppSettings.Default too. Remind you how it’s defined in the behind-the-scene AppSettings.Designer.cs:
private static AppSettings defaultInstance = ((AppSettings)(global::System.Configuration.ApplicationSettingsBase.Synchronized(new AppSettings()))); public static AppSettings Default { get { return defaultInstance; } } 

The solution

Tools

For a YAML reading itself we’ve decided to use ready libraries available through NuGet:
YamlDotNet is a YAML library for netstandard and other .NET runtimes. YamlDotNet provides low level parsing and emitting of YAML as well as a high level object model similar to XmlDocument. A serialization library is also included that allows to read and write objects from and to YAML streams.
  • NetEscapades.Configurationgithub.com/andrewlock/NetEscapades.Configuration. This is a configuration provider itself (in the meaning of Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration.IConfigurationSource actively used in ASP.NET Core applications) that reads YAML-files using the mentioned above YamlDotNet.
More about using of shown libraries you can read right here.

Switching to YAML

The switching to YAML itself we implemented by two steps: first we just moved from XML to YAML, but kept a flat structure of config-files, and only then we introduced the sections in YAML-files. These steps could be actually collided into the one, and for the reason of explanation simplification I’ll do it exactly in that way.
All described further actions were applied sequentially to each service.

YML-file preparation

First we have to prepare a YAML-file itself. Let’s name it with a project name (it’s useful for future integration tests which must be able to work with different servers and distinguish one config from another), we’ll put the file right into the project root, near the AppSettings
In the YML-file itself for first we’ll keep the “flat” structure:
VirtualFeed: "MaxChartHistoryLength: 10, UseThrottling: True, ThrottlingIntervalMs: 50000, UseHistoryBroadcast: True, CalendarName: EmptyCalendar" VirtualFeedPort: 35016 UsMarketFeedUseImbalances: True 

Filling of the AppSettings with settings properties

Let’s move all the properties from the AppSettings.Designer.cs into the AppSettings.cs, at the same time disposing of designer’s attributes that have become redundant and of the code itself in get/set-sides.
Before:
[global::System.Configuration.UserScopedSettingAttribute()] [global::System.Diagnostics.DebuggerNonUserCodeAttribute()] [global::System.Configuration.DefaultSettingValueAttribute("35016")] public int VirtualFeedPort{ get { return ((int)(this["VirtualFeedPort"])); } set { this["VirtualFeedPort"] = value; } } 
After:
public int VirtualFeedPort { get; set; } 
Let’s remove the AppSettings.Designer.cs completely as unnecessary. Now by the way we can completely get rid of the “userSettings” section in the app.config file, if we have it in a project — there are stored the default settings which we fill in through the settings designer.
Move further.

Monitoring of the settings changes “on the fly”

As far as we need to be able to catch updates of our settings at runtime, it’s necessary to implement the INotifyPropertyChanged in our AppSettings. There is no base System.Configuration.ApplicationSettingsBase anymore and therefore we can’t depend on some magic.
We can implement the desired behavior “stupid”: add a method implementation, which raises a necessary event, and call it in a setter of each property. But it would mean redundant code lines which also we would have to copy to all the services.
Let’s do it in a more pretty way — let’s introduce a helper AutoNotifier base class which does the same in fact, but behind-the-scene, just like the System.Configuration.ApplicationSettingsBase was doing before:
///  /// Implements  for classes with a lot of public properties (i.e. AppSettings). /// This implementation is: /// - fairly slow, so don't use it for classes where getting/setting of properties is often operation; /// - not for properties described in inherited classes of 2nd level (bad idea: Inherit2 -> Inherit1 -> AutoNotifier; good idea: sealed Inherit -> AutoNotifier) ///  public abstract class AutoNotifier : INotifyPropertyChanged { public event PropertyChangedEventHandler PropertyChanged; private readonly ConcurrentDictionary _wrappedValues = new ConcurrentDictionary(); //just to avoid manual writing a lot of fields protected T Get([CallerMemberName] string propertyName = null) { return (T)_wrappedValues.GetValueOrDefault(propertyName, () => default(T)); } protected void Set(T value, [CallerMemberName] string propertyName = null) { // ReSharper disable once AssignNullToNotNullAttribute _wrappedValues.AddOrUpdate(propertyName, value, (s, o) => value); OnPropertyChanged(propertyName); } public object this[string propertyName] { get { return Get(propertyName); } set { Set(value, propertyName); } } protected void OnPropertyChanged([CallerMemberName] string propertyName = null) { PropertyChanged?.Invoke(this, new PropertyChangedEventArgs(propertyName)); } }  Here the [CallerMemberName] attribute allows to get automatically a property name of a calling object, i.e. the AppSettings.
Now we can inherit our AppSettings from the base AutoNotifier class, and then modify each property a little:
public int VirtualFeedPort { get { return Get(); } set { Set(value); } } 
Using such approach our AppSettings classes, even those of them which contain quite many settings, look compact and at the same time implement the INotifyPropertyChanged completely.
Yes, I know that I could introduce a little bit more magic using, for example, the Castle.DynamicProxy.IInterceptor, catching updates of necessary properties and raising the events. But such solution seems to me as overheaded.

Reading of settings from a YAML-file

As next step let’s add the YAML-configuration reader itself. It’s placed somewhere nearer to a service start point. Hiding some redundant details not related to the reviewed topic we’ve got something like this:
public static IServerConfigurationProvider LoadServerConfiguration(IReadOnlyDictionary allSections) { IConfigurationBuilder builder = new ConfigurationBuilder().SetBasePath(ConfigFiles.BasePath); foreach (string configFile in configFiles) { string directory = Path.GetDirectoryName(configFile); if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(directory)) //can be empty if relative path is used { Directory.CreateDirectory(directory); } builder = builder.AddYamlFile(configFile, optional: true, reloadOnChange: true); } IConfigurationRoot config = builder.Build(); // load prepared files and merge them return new ServerConfigurationProvider(config, allSections); } 
In the presented code the ConfigurationBuilder perhaps is not a very interesting part — all work with it is identical to work with configs in ASP.NET Core. But there are few interesting further points. First, “out of the box” we’ve also received the ability to collide the settings from few files. It satisfies the requirement of having at least two config-files for a server that I mentioned above. Second, we give whole configuration that we’ve read into a ServerConfigurationProvider. What for?

Sections in a YAML-file

We’ll answer this question later, but now let’s come back to the requirement of storing of hierarchically structured settings in a YML-file.
Basically it’s quite easy to implement this behavior. First, we’ll introduce a desired structure in the YML-file itself:
VirtualFeed: MaxChartHistoryLength: 10 Port: 35016 UseThrottling: True UsMarketFeed: UseImbalances: True 
And now let’s go to the AppSettings and teach it to separate our properties by sections. Something like this:
public sealed class AppSettings : AutoNotifier, IWebSettingsStorage, IServerSettingsStorage, IServerManagerAddressStorage, IGlobalCredentialsStorage, IGraphiteAddressStorage, IDatabaseConfigStorage { public static IReadOnlyDictionary Sections { get; } = new Dictionary { {typeof(IDatabaseConfigStorage), "Database"}, {typeof(IWebSettingsStorage), "Web"}, {typeof(IServerSettingsStorage), "Server"}, {typeof(IGraphiteAddressStorage), "Graphite"}, {typeof(IServerManagerAddressStorage), "ServerManager"}, {typeof(IGlobalCredentialsStorage), "GlobalCredentials"} }; ... 
As you might see we’ve added into the AppSettings a dictionary where interfaces types which implemented by the AppSettings class are used as keys, and headers of corresponding sections — are values. Now we can match the hierarchy in a YML-file with the hierarchy of properties in the AppSettings (although not deeper that one level of nesting, but it’s enough in our case).
Why do we do it right here — in the AppSettings? Because we don’t smear information about the settings on different entities, and besides this is the most natural place, because each service and therefore each AppSettings has its own settings sections.

What if we don’t need a hierarchy in the settings?

Actually this is a strange case, but we had it on the first stage while simple switching from XML to YAML without using of YAML advantages.
In that case it’s not worth storing the whole sections list, and the ServerConfigurationProvider itself is significantly simpler (considered below).
But there is an important point — if we decide to keep the flat hierarchy, then we’ll be managed to satisfy the requirement to keep the ability of the settings retrieving through the AppSettings.Default. For that purpose we’ll add such simple public constructor into the AppSettings:
public static AppSettings Default { get; } public AppSettings() { Default = this; } 
Now we can reach out the class with settings through the AppSettings.Default everywhere (if there’s satisfied a condition of anticipatorily read settings through the IConfigurationRoot in the ServerConfigurationProvider, and therefore the AppSettings is instantiated).
If the flat hierarchy is prohibited then anyway we have to get rid of the AppSettings.Default everywhere in the code and work with the settings through the interfaces (that’s the good news actually). Why so — it’ll be clearer further.

ServerConfigurationProvider

ServerConfigurationProvider that is the special class mentioned before produces the magic that allows to fully work with a new YAML-config with the flat AppSettings.
ServerConfigurationProvider is parametrized by the AppSettings class:
public class ServerConfigurationProvider : IServerConfigurationProvider where TAppSettings : new() 
It allows, as you might guess, to use it in all the services.
A retrieved config (IConfigurationRoot) is provided into the constructor and, mentioned above, the sections dictionary (AppSettings.Sections) is provided too. The subscription on file updates is occured at the same place (cause we want in the case of changes in a YML-file to pull the changes at runtime, do we?):
_configuration.GetReloadToken()?.RegisterChangeCallback(OnConfigurationFileChanged, null); ... private void OnConfigurationFileChanged(object _) { foreach (string sectionName in _cachedSections.Keys) { Type sectionInterface = _interfacesBySections[sectionName]; TAppSettings newSection = ReadSection(sectionName, sectionInterface); TAppSettings oldSection; if (_cachedSections.TryGetValue(sectionName, out oldSection)) { UpdateSection(oldSection, newSection); } } } 
As you might see here in the case of updates of a YML-file we walk through all known sections and read each of them. Then if the section is read previously into a cache (i.e. it was requested somewhere in the code by some class), then we’ll overwrite old values in the cache with the new ones.
You may ask — what for do we read each section, why don’t read just those of them which are in the cache (i.e. are actually used)? Because we implemented a configuration validation in a section reading process. And in the case of incorrect settings corresponding alerts are raised, the problems are logged. It’s better to find out problems of configuration changes as soon as possible, so we read all the sections at once.
Updating of old values in the cache with new values is quite trivial:
private void UpdateSection(TAppSettings oldConfig, TAppSettings newConfig) { foreach (PropertyInfo propertyInfo in typeof(TAppSettings).GetProperties().Where(p => p.GetMethod != null && p.SetMethod != null)) { propertyInfo.SetValue(newConfig, propertyInfo.GetValue(oldConfig)); } } 
But reading of sections is not so simple:
private TAppSettings ReadSection(string sectionName, Type sectionInterface) { TAppSettings parsed; try { IConfigurationSection section = _configuration.GetSection(sectionName); CheckSection(section, sectionName, sectionInterface); parsed = section.Get(); if (parsed == null) { //means that this section is empty or all its properties are empty return new TAppSettings(); } ReadArrays(parsed, section); } catch (Exception ex) { Logger.Fatal(ex, "Something wrong during reading section {0} in config", sectionName.SafeSurround()); throw; } return parsed; } 
First of all here we read a section itself, using the standard IConfigurationRoot.GetSection. Then we validate the section we’ve read.
Then we bind the section we’ve read to a type of our settings: section.Get. There we encounter a feature of the YAML-parser — it doesn’t distinguish an empty section (without parameters, i.e. an absent one) from a section where all the parameters are empty.
That’s an example of such case:
VirtualFeed: Names: [] 
In the VirtualFeed section there is the Names parameter with an empty list of values but the YAML-parser unfortunately tells that the VirtualFeed section is even completely empty. It’s sad.
And at last some magic to support IEnumerable properties in the settings is implemented here. We were not able to achieve a normal reading of lists “out of the box”.
ReadArrays(parsed, section); ... ///  /// Manual reading of array properties in config ///  private void ReadArrays(TAppSettings settings, IConfigurationSection section) { foreach (PropertyInfo propertyInfo in GetPublicProperties(typeof(TAppSettings), needSetters: true).Where(p => typeof(IEnumerable).IsAssignableFrom(p.PropertyType))) { ClearDefaultArrayIfOverridenExists(section.Key, propertyInfo.Name); IConfigurationSection enumerableProperty = section.GetSection(propertyInfo.Name); propertyInfo.SetValue(settings, enumerableProperty.Get>()); } } ///  /// Clears array property from default config to use overriden one. /// Standard implementation merges default and overriden array by indexes - this is not what we need ///  private void ClearDefaultArrayIfOverridenExists(string sectionName, string propertyName) { List providers = _configuration.Providers.ToList(); if (providers.Count == 0) { return; } string propertyTemplate = $"{sectionName}:{propertyName}:"; if (!providers[providers.Count - 1].TryGet($"{propertyTemplate}{0}", out _)) { //we should use array from default config, because overriden config has no overriden array return; } foreach (IConfigurationProvider provider in providers.Take(providers.Count - 1)) { for (int i = 0; ; i++) { string propertyInnerName = $"{propertyTemplate}{i}"; if (!provider.TryGet(propertyInnerName, out _)) { break; } provider.Set(propertyInnerName, null); } } } 
As you see we find all properties having a type inherited from the IEnumerable and set into them values from a fictive “section” named the same as interested setting. But before this we don’t forget to check: is there an overriden value of the enumerable property in a second config-file? If yes — then we take only it and clear the settings that were read from a base config file. If we don’t do it then both properties (from the base file and from the overriden one) will be automatically merged into one array on the IConfigurationSection level, and what is more the keys for combining will be the arrays indexes. So we’ll get a hodgepodge instead of a normal overriden value.
At the end of the day, the showed ReadSection method is used in the main method of the class: in the FindSection.
[CanBeNull] public object FindSection(Type sectionInterface) { string sectionName = FindSectionName(sectionInterface); if (sectionName == null) { return null; } //we must return same instance of settings for same requested section (otherwise changing of settings will lead to inconsistent state) return _cachedSections.GetOrAdd(sectionName, typeName => ReadSection(sectionName, sectionInterface)); } 
Here becomes clear why don’t we support the AppSettings.Default while we support sections: each call of a new (not read before) settings section through the FindSection will give us in fact a new instance of the AppSettings class, though casted to the necessary class, and therefore if we’d used the AppSettings.Default then it would have overwritten on each reading of a new section and have contained valued only those of settings which related to the last read section (all the rest would have had default values — NULL or 0).
Validation of the settings correctness in a section is implemented in this way:
private void CheckSection(IConfigurationSection section, string sectionName, Type sectionInterface) { ICollection properties = GetPublicProperties(sectionInterface, needSetters: false); var configProperties = new HashSet(section.GetChildren().Select(c => c.Key)); foreach (PropertyInfo propertyInfo in properties) { if (!configProperties.Remove(propertyInfo.Name)) { if (propertyInfo.PropertyType != typeof(string) && typeof(IEnumerable).IsAssignableFrom(propertyInfo.PropertyType)) { //no way to distinguish absent array and empty array :( Logger.Debug("Property {0} has no valuable items in configs section {1}", propertyInfo.Name, sectionName.SafeSurround()); } else { Logger.Fatal("Property {0} not found in configs section {1}", propertyInfo.Name, sectionName.SafeSurround()); } } } if (configProperties.Any()) { Logger.Fatal("Unexpected config properties {0} in configs section {1}", configProperties.SafeSurroundAndJoin(), sectionName.SafeSurround()); } } 
Here for first we extract all public properties of the interested us interface (i.e. the settings section). And for each of those properties we find a match in the settings we’ve read: if the match is not found then we log a corresponding issue because it means that the config file hasn’t some settings. At last we additionally check whether some of the settings we’ve read still remain unmatched with the interface. If there are, then we log an issue again because it means that the properties undefined in the interface are found in the config file, but it shouldn’t be in a normal situation.
The question is arised — why do we have the requirement that all settings in a file we’ve read must match existing ones in an interface by the principle “one-to-one”? Point is that, as mentioned above, at this moment we’ve read not one file, but at once two files — the first one with default settings and the second one with overriden settings, and both of them are merged. Thereafter in fact we look on the settings not from one file but the on the full settings. And in this case, of course, their set must correspond to the expected settings one to one.
Also you should notice in the source code the GetPublicProperties method which seems to simply return all public properties of an interface. But it’s not as simple as could be because sometimes the interface defining a server settings is inherited from another interface and therefore we have a necessity to look through the whole hierarchy of interfaces to find all public properties.

Retrieving of a server settings

Given the above everywhere in the source code for retrieving of a server settings we call the following interface:
///  /// Provides different configurations for current server ///  public interface IServerConfigurationProvider { TSettingsSectionInterface FindSection() where TSettingsSectionInterface : class; object FindSection(Type sectionInterface); IEnumerable AllSections { get; } } 
The first method of this interface — FindSection — allows to reach out to an interested section of settings. Something in this way:
IThreadPoolProperties threadPoolProperties = ConfigurationProvider.FindSection(); 
What for do we need the second and the third method — will explain further.

Registration of the settings interfaces

In our project we use Castle Windsor as an IoC-container. It delivers server settings as well. Therefore these interfaces are required to be registered in it.
For this purpose a simple extension class is written, it allows to simplify the procedure to avoid writing a whole set of interfaces registration in each server:
public static class ServerConfigurationProviderExtensions { public static void RegisterAllConfigurationSections(this IWindsorContainer container, IServerConfigurationProvider configurationProvider) { Register(container, configurationProvider, configurationProvider.AllSections.ToArray()); } public static void Register(this IWindsorContainer container, IServerConfigurationProvider configurationProvider, params Type[] configSections) { var registrations = new IRegistration[configSections.Length]; for (int i = 0; i < registrations.Length; i++) { Type configSection = configSections[i]; object section = configurationProvider.FindSection(configSection); registrations[i] = Component.For(configSection).Instance(section).Named(configSection.FullName); } container.Register(registrations); } } 
The first method allows the registration of all the settings sections (for that we have the AllSections property in the IServerConfigurationProvider interface).
And the second method is used in the first one, and it automatically reads a specified settings section using our ServerConfigurationProvider thereby writes it into a cache of the ServerConfigurationProvider and registers in Windsor. Right here the second unparametrized FindSection method from the IServerConfigurationProvider is used.
It only remains to call our extension method in a code of a container registration in Windsor:
container.RegisterAllConfigurationSections(configProvider); 

Conclusion

Where we were succeed

Using the showed way we were able to quite painlessly switch all settings of our servers from XML to YAML wherein doing a minimal amount of changes of existing code of the servers.
YAML-configurations unlike XML ones turned out more readable because of not only more laconity but support of a separation to sections.
We haven’t invented own bikes for YAML parsing but used ready solutions. However for their integration into realities of our project we had to apply some tricks described in the article. I hope they’ll be useful for readers too.
We managed to keep the ability of monitoring of the servers settings changes in their web interfaces “on the fly”. Futhermore as a bonus we’ve got the ability to catch the changes on the fly in a YAML-file itself (earlier we had to restart a server after any changes in config-files).
We’ve kept the ability of two config-files merging — with default settings and with overriden ones, wherein we’ve done it using third-party solutions “out of the box”.

Where we were not very successful

We had to refuse the previously existed ability of saving of changes applied from web interfaces of our servers into config files, because the support of such functionality would require a lot of motions from our side, but we hadn’t such a business task actually.
And also we had to refuse calls of the settings through the AppSettings.Default, but this is more pros than cons.
submitted by vadlit to csharp

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