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The pope v The antipope
Auld firm derby:submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture
In this article i am going to try to pinpoint the roots of the Secterianism divide, best exemplified by the passionate Auld firm derby.
The Old Firm is the collective name for the Scottish football clubs Celtic and Rangers, which are both based in Glasgow. The two clubs are by far the most successful and popular in Scotland, and the rivalry between them has become deeply embedded in Scottish culture. It has reflected, and contributed to, political, social, and religious division and sectarianism in Scotland. As a result, the fixture has had an enduring appeal around the world.Link for photo
Auld firm derby
As we can see below, the derby has a long tradition of being more than just a sporting rivalry.
The rivalry also includes national and political divide, as well as religious divide.
Now it is the secterian element i am going to explore in this article.
Rivalry and secterianism
The competition between the two clubs had roots in more than just a simple sporting rivalry. It has as much to do with Northern Ireland as Scotland and this can be seen in the flags, cultural symbols, and emblems of both clubs. It was infused with a series of complex disputes, sometimes centred on religion (Catholic and Protestant), Northern Ireland-related politics (Loyalist and Republican), national identity (British or Irish Scots), and social ideology (Conservatism and Socialism).Link for photo
Some may say this rivalry has it's roots in the Protestant reformation, when protestantism was born.
Pope Martin V was elected and was accepted everywhere except in the small and rapidly diminishing area that remained faithful to Benedict XIII. The scandal of the Western Schism created anti-papal sentiment and fed into the Protestant Reformation at the turn of the 16th centuryLink for photo
Spread of Protestantism
However, to find the most immediate roots, i am going to begin with the thought to be first ever pope, Saint Peter, in 30 AD.
Saint Peter[a] (r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68) also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, Simon (/ˈsaɪmən/ (📷listen)), Cephas, or Peter the Apostle, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, and one of the first leaders of the early Church.Link for photo
Pope Saint Peter
Many scholars do agree that Saint Peter was indeed martyred by Nero, though they dispute his legitimacy to papacy.
But right from the very first claimed pope, we see a division between Roman imperialists and popes.
Some church historians consider Peter and Paul to have been martyred under the reign of Nero, around AD 65 after the Great Fire of Rome. Presently, most Catholic scholars, and many scholars in general, hold the view that Peter was martyred in Rome under Nero.Link for photo.jpg)
The next pope, Linus, decreed that Christian women should cover their heads.
With respect to Linus' purported decree prescribing the covering of women's heads,Link for photo.jpg)
Pope Linus in the middle
Pope Alexander I:
According to the Liber Pontificalls it was Pope Alexander I who inserted the narration of the last supper.
Life and legend
According to the Liber Pontificalis, it was Alexander I who inserted the narration of the Last SupperLink for photo
Pope Alexander I
Pope Telesphorus is credited with a whole list of attributions, including the tradition of midnight mass, celebration of Easter on Sundays, seven day lent, and singing of the hymn Gloria.
The tradition of Christmas Midnight Masses, the celebration of Easter on Sundays, the keeping of a seven-week Lent before Easter and the singing of the Gloria are usually attributed to his pontificateLink for photo
Pope Pius I:
Then we have Pope Pius, said to have built Santa Pudenziana.
But we also see Pope Pius has came in for some competition from competing Christians sects, which he excommunicates.
. He is also said to have built one of the oldest churches in Rome, Santa Pudenziana.Link for photo
Next, a controversy begins that would blow out of all proportion, between the see of Rome and other factions, over which day passover should be.
Pope Anicetus also opposed other Christian sects, and passed a law decreeing that Priests must not have long hair, which would pretty much make the Gnostic priests violators
Polycarp and his Church of Smyrna celebrated the crucifixion on the fourteenth day of Nisan, which coincides with Pesach (or Passover) regardless of which day of the week upon this date fell, while the Roman Church celebrated the Pasch on Sunday—the weekday of Jesus's resurrection. The two did not agree on a common date, but Anicetus conceded to Polycarp and the Church of Smyrna the ability to retain the date to which they were accustomed. The controversy was to grow heated in the following centuries.Link for photo
Then we have Pope Soter who passed the law that marraige is only valid if blessed by a priest, and also officially inaugurated Easter as an annual festival.
Pope Soter (Latin: Soterius) was the bishop of Rome from c. 167 to his death in c. 174. According to the Annuario Pontificio, the dates may have ranged from 162–168 to 170–177. He was born in Fondi, Campania, today Lazio region, Italy. Soter is known for declaring that marriage was valid only as a sacrament blessed by a priest and also for formally inaugurating Easter as an annual festival in Rome.Link for photo
You might also notice from below, that the sects that the Roman church are opposing, all appear to be sects that are connected to Gaul.
Therefore there may appear to be a touch of nationalism about this also.
Probably even cultural and maybe even racial divides too, all culminating in fighting over length of hair.
And the Gallics opposed the Papacy every bit as much as the Papacy opposed the Gallic Christian sects.
Reaction to montanist movement
The Montanist movement, which originated in Asia Minor, made its way to Rome and Gaul in the second half of the 2nd century, during the reign of Eleuterus. Its nature did not diverge so much from the orthodoxy of the time for it to initially be labeled heresy. During the violent persecution at Lyon,Link for photo
Pre roman Gaul
Pope Victor I:
Under pope victor I, teaching Christ is a mere man, became an excommunicatable offence.
According to an anonymous writer quoted by Eusebius, Victor excommunicated Theodotus of Byzantium for teaching that Christ was a mere man.Pope zephyrinus:
Now if you have found the article boring up until now, then here is were it maybe begins to get a little more interesting.
Pope Victor I's excommunicating of Theodotus the Tanner led to an activist group of Theodotuses migrating to Rome and setting up a rival community right on the Papacy's doorstep.
Zephyrinus's predecessor Pope Victor I had excommunicated Theodotus the Tanner for reviving a heresy that Christ only became God after his resurrection. Theodotus' followers formed a separate heretical community at Rome ruled by another Theodotus,Antipope Natalius:
And it appears this group was led by the first ever Anti-pope, Natalius.
Natalius (c. 199 – c. 200) was a figure in early church history who is sometimes considered to be the first antipope of Rome.Antipope:
So what on earth is the antipope?
An antipope (Latin: antipapa) is a person who, in opposition to the lawful pope, makes a significant attempt to occupy the position of Bishop of Rome and leader of the Catholic Church.Pope Callixtus:
This rivalry is what most likely led to the next Pope, Callixtus I being martyred by being thrown down a well, with the person that did this, being martyred by being thrown off a bridge in to the Tiber River in a revenge attack.
According to the apocryphal Acts of Saint Callixtus, Asterius, a priest of Rome, recovered the body of Callixtus after it had been tossed into a well and buried Callixtus' body at night. Asterius was arrested for this action by the prefect Alexander and then killed by being thrown off a bridge into the Tiber River.Link for photo
Tiber River & St Peter's square
Pope Leo VIII v Pope Benedict V:
Sometimes the difference between Pope and anti-pope has caused immense confusion, such is the case with Pope Leo VIII and Pope Benedict V.
Sometimes it was difficult to distinguish which of two claimants should be called pope and which antipope, as in the case of Pope Leo VIII and Pope Benedict V.Pope Leo VIII:
Now, this may appear like a conspiracy theory to you, but it is likely that Pope Leo VIII was in fact supported by the Holy Roman Emperor Otto I, as it was actually Otto I who appointed him.
The Catholic church today reject Pope Leo as an antipope, and the real pope was in fact Benedict V.
Pope Leo VIII
Pope Leo VIII (c. 915 – 1 March 965) was a Roman prelate who claimed the Holy See from 963 until 964 in opposition to John XII and Benedict V and again from 23 June 964 to his death. Today he is considered by the Catholic Church to have been an antipope during the first period and the legitimate pope during the second. An appointee of Holy Roman Emperor Otto I, Leo VIII's pontificate occurred during the period known as the Saeculum obscurum.Pope Benedict V:
And here, we find out it was not a conspiracy theory at-all.
Benedict V appears to have been quite factually overthrown by Holy Roman emperor Otto I, in favour of Pope Leo VIII the antipope.
Pope Benedict V
Pope Benedict V (Latin: Benedictus V; died 4 July 965) was the bishop of Rome and ruler of the Papal States from 22 May to 23 June 964, in opposition to Leo VIII. He was overthrown by Emperor Otto I.Link for photo
Pope Benedict V
In fact the confusion got so bad in the 15th Century we even had confusion who the antipope was, as there were now two antipope factions competing with one another.
Was it Avignon, or Pisa?
The Western Schism—which began in 1378, when the French cardinals, claiming that the election of Pope Urban VI was invalid, elected antipope Clement VII as a rival to the Roman Pope—led eventually to two competing lines of antipopes: the Avignon line (Clement VII took up residence in Avignon, France), and the Pisan line.Link for photo.svg)
Avignon coat of Arms
Anti papal sentiment:
All this fighting led to antipapal sentiment and beginning of the protestant reformation.
The scandal of the Western Schism created anti-papal sentiment and fed into the Protestant Reformation at the turn of the 16th century.Monarchs:
But what i find interesting, is the belief that antipopes may have often been financed and supported by kings/monarchs/emperors in order to have a monarch friendly ally Pope.
We saw this already with Otto I.
 At times between the 3rd and mid-15th centuries, antipopes were supported by important factions within the Church itself and by secular rulers.Link for photo
Saint Peter's Basilica
So, what i am going to do, is look at who the Roman emperor was during the reign of antipope Natalius, considered the first antipope.
And it would have been Septimius Severus.
Lucius Septimius Severus (Latin: [seˈweːrus]; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211) was Roman emperor from 193 to 211. He was born in Leptis Magna in the Roman province of Africa). As a young man he advanced through the customary succession of offices under the reigns of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. Severus seized power after the death of Emperor Pertinax in 193 during the Year of the Five Emperors.Link for photo
So, i will now look and see if we can find any suggestion whatsoever that Septimius Severus might have been the first ever Roman emperor to support an antipope regime.
First off, we see his policies towards Christians is considered inconsistent.
He did relax laws against the practise of Christianity, and stated they were only to be punished if they refused to worship the emperor and the Gods.
Though he himself was definitely not a Christian, and his syncretism would have likely been considered blasphemy by the church.
Reputed persecution of Christians
At the beginning of Severus' reign, Trajan's policy toward the Christians was still in force. That is, Christians were only to be punished if they refused to worship the emperor and the gods, but they were not to be sought out. Therefore, persecution was inconsistent, local, and sporadic. Faced with internal dissidence and external threats, Severus felt the need to promote religious harmony by promoting syncretism.Link for photo.jpg)
Bronze head of Septimius Severus
And here, we have a mixed report regards to Septimius Severus's relationship with Christians.
Some say he was a persecutor of Christians, where-as others say he had Christians even in the highest positions of his mob.
Reputed persecutions of Christians
A number of persecutions of Christians occurred in the Roman Empire during his reign and are traditionally attributed to Severus by the early Christian community. This is based on the decree mentioned in the Historia Augusta, an unreliable mix of fact and fiction. Early church historian Eusebius described Severus as a persecutor. The Christian apologist Tertullian stated that Severus was well disposed towards Christians, employed a Christian as his personal physician and had personally intervened to save several high-born Christians known to him from the mob.Expert analysis:
And according to expert analysis from historians and scholars, the persecution of Christians was likely just locals that were not connected to Septimius.
And whilst i find it extremely noble of historians and scholars to protect the good name of such a highly note worthy figure such as a Roman emperor, i do not think the analysis is consistant with it's surroundings.
I feel it is quite apparent what Septimius Severus wanted.
He would appear to have been ok with Christians that played by his rules, and quite bad to Christians that did not, and would likely have been quite happy for one of the Christians in his "mob" to act as Pope.
And that is likely the most immediate root cause of the religious secterian divide.
Match Thread: U-20 World Cup USMNT vs Ecuador [4:00 a.m. ET, FS1, Telemundo]
FIFA U-20 WORLD CUP
Location: Incheon Stadium, Incheon, South Korea
Time: 4:00 a.m. EST, 1:00 a.m. PST, 5:00 p.m. local time
Weather: 76F, 24C, 0% chance of precipitation
Referee: Bjorn Kuipers-NED
USYNT Twitter~FIFA Twitter
HC: Jose Rodriguez
|35||Sargent||De La Torre||Ecuador2-1USA|
|90+4||De La Torre||Lennon||USA3-3Ecuador|
-60’ Hello Folks, It is 3:00 in the morning here in my part of the world and we’re an hour away from the first match of Group F in U20 World Cup in South Korea between USA and Ecuador. While it may be 5:00 p.m. local time in South Korea, it is late/early as balls here in the U.S. I understand that this may dissuade many of you from watching the match but I’ll keep this thread going for those who don’t mind the lack of sleep and for those who wake up and would like to know how the match went.
0'Let's go USA We're underway in Incheon. The lineup was largely predictable in most respects but Williamson and Redding are the surprise starts with latter getting the nod likely due to injuries on the roster. Nevertheless this will certainly be the most difficult match in the group for the U.S..
2' Williamson plays Lennon out wide who sets up the cross but it sails over the head of any potential attacker in the box.
5' GOAL for Ecuador. Terrible defending by the U.S. Corozo beats Redding for pace and make him look silly as he takes a tumble. Klinsmann comes out to take on the Ecuadorian and narrowly avoids getting called for a red-card worthy foul. The ball is knocked to Lina who coolly finishes to out Ecuador up 1-0. Ecuador 1-0 USA
7' Another goal for Ecuador This has become very embarrassing for the U.S. The right flank is exploited again as Cabezas beats Redding once more and puts the ball past Klinsmann to put Ecuador up by 2. Ecuador 2-0 USA
14' The U.S. has become more assured in possession and has had a few chances but the threat of another fast break Ecuadorian goal looms.
21' The U.S. has an energetic press running which has disrupted some amount of Ecuadorian possesion but have failed in transitioning the ball into the attack.
26' Frantic defending by the U.S. as a dangerous giveaway results in Ecuador threatening the U.S. goal. Cabezas puts a shot wide of goal but a change needs to be made for the U.S. if they're going to stand a chance.
29' Sargent has had a definite impact on the game in his U20 debut. He takes the ball right up the middle into a dangerous position but is stripped of possession at the edge of the box. Sargent has played well but the U.S. attack looks so disjointed he hasn't really come close to scoring.
30' Zelalem walks off with a self-inflicted injury it would appear Sub imminent.
34' Sub for the U.S.. Derrick Jones replaces Gedion Zelalem who has been injured.
36' JOSH MUTHFUGGIN SARGENT YOU BEAUTY. De La Torre dribbles the ball up the middle and finds Sargent out wide. Despite poor first control, he settles it and puts the U.S. on the board. Ecuador 2-1 USA
38'Sargent threatens goal again but is put off by the Ecuadorian keeper. The Jones sub appears to have put the fire in the U.S.
45' 2 extra minutes before halftime.
HT After a nightmare start, the U.S. managed to pull a goal back before half. The Derrick Jones sub has led to a massive improvement in the midfield and it should be questioned why Tab did not start him in the first place. However, the right flank still remains an issue with Redding and Herrera both having trouble in containing an Ecuadorian attack that has them beat for pace and often physicality. De La Torre and Sargent have been spearheading the attack as they teamed up to score the U.S. goal but Lennon has often looked less than composed. The U.S. has had 63% possession to Ecuador's 37%.
46'We're back, no changes at halftime.
50' A long throw-in catches the U.S. off-guard as Corozo dangerously receives the ball in the box but EPB swoops in and defuses the threat.
52' THIS KID IS BRILLIANT. Goal for Josh Sargent. Lennon puts in as pretty as a deep cross as you will ever see to Sargent who swoops low to head the ball at the far post. USA 2-2 Ecuador
56' Klinsmann saves the U.S.' bacon. Point-blank save to stop an Ecuador attempt as dad smiles from the stands.
58' Acosta sits down apparently injured, doesn't appear serious..I hope.
64' Goal for Ecuador. An bad mistake by Klinsmann as a heavy press by Ecuador forces a turnover in the box and Cabezas pounces to put Ecuador back on top. Ecuador 3-2 USA
72' Sub for the U.S. Lagos Kunga comes on for Eryk Williamson
79' Yellow for Jones. One more and he is suspended one game.
82' Herrera's poor positioning plays Caicedo onside in a dangerous position but EPB once again stifles the attack.
86' Final sub for the U.S.. Sebastian Saucedo comes on for Tyler Adams
89' The U.S. is running out of time here in Incheon if they want an equalizer.
90+4 USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA Lennon puts the cross into the box and the ball is headed away only for De La Torre to strike and equalize for the U.S. USA 3-3 Ecuador
FT Turns out that was the last play of the game as the U.S. squeaks out a draw in the first match of the U20 World Cup. The U.S. showed their mettle after going down by 2 goals early. The Jones sub for Zelalem turned the match around as he provided a calm presence in the midfield. Josh Sargent has a dream debut for the U20s with a brace. All three attackers proved themselves today operating well together despite some rough patches. Surely they will improve with more time spent together.